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Considerations for the selection of car audio capacitors | Focus on mid-to-high-end brand capacitor manufacturers

by:Shenmao     2021-05-26
The impact of car audio capacitors on sound should be recognized by everyone. Products from different manufacturers of the same specification and model have different sounds. What is said is that some products are made on the same production line according to the exact same material and process parameters. If the production date is different for several years, the sound will be different. There are many types of capacitors used in car audio capacitors. In recent years, there are some new varieties dedicated to audio. Whether you are a DIY enthusiast or an ordinary enthusiast, it is helpful to master some knowledge in this area. There are many types of capacitors depending on the medium, such as: electrolytic capacitors, paper capacitors, film capacitors, ceramic capacitors, mica capacitors, etc. But the most frequently used in audio equipment is undoubtedly electrolytic capacitors and film capacitors. Let us first understand several important parameters of capacitors. 1. Nominal parameters 1.1 Electrostatic capacity: the capacitance, which is the value listed on the capacitor shell, usually expressed as UF. 1.2 Working voltage: The indicator is called the safe working voltage, which means that the nominal voltage must not be exceeded in the application circuit. 1.3 Temperature: The common ones are mostly 85 degrees and 105 degrees. Under high temperature conditions (such as pure class A power amplifier), 105 degrees nominal should be preferred. In general, the preference for high temperature coefficient is also positive for improving the performance of other parameters. 2. Dissipation factor Sometimes the value of the dissipation factor is also expressed by the dielectric loss angle tan. Whether the value of the dissipation factor is high or low is related to temperature, capacity, voltage, frequency...; when the capacity is the same, the higher the withstand voltage, the lower the value of the dissipation factor. The higher the frequency, the higher the value of the dissipation factor, and the higher the temperature, the higher the value of the dissipation factor. The value of the dissipation factor is generally not marked on the capacitor or on the specification introduction. When choosing capacitors in DIY, priority should be given to choosing higher withstand voltage. For example, when the working voltage is 45V, it is not very reasonable to choose 50V. Although there is nothing wrong with using 50V from the withstand voltage to work normally, it lacks some considerations from the value of the dissipation factor. Use 63V or 80V withstand voltage will have better performance. Of course, no matter how high the price is, it won't be cost-effective. 3. Equivalent series resistance The level of equivalent series resistance is related to the capacity, voltage, frequency and temperature of the capacitor. The lower the equivalent series resistance requirement, the better. When the rated voltage is fixed, the larger the capacity, the lower the equivalent series resistance. When the capacity is fixed, the equivalent series resistance can be reduced by choosing a product with a high rated voltage. The equivalent series resistance is high at low frequencies, and the equivalent series resistance is low at high frequencies. High temperatures will also increase the equivalent series resistance. Equivalent series resistance Many brands of equivalent series resistance can be found on the specification sheet. 4. Leakage current can be understood at a glance, that is, leakage current! Electrolytic capacitors have leakage current, which is determined by the physical structure. Needless to say, the leakage current is of course as small as possible. The higher the capacitance of the capacitor, the greater the leakage current; lowering the operating voltage can reduce the leakage current. Conversely, the selection of higher withstand voltage varieties will also help reduce leakage current. Combining the above two parameters, it is indeed a simple and feasible method to preferentially select high withstand voltage products under the same conditions; reduce internal resistance, reduce leakage current, reduce loss angle, and increase life. There are so many benefits, but the price will be higher. There is a saying that even when the electrolytic capacitor is working at a voltage far below the rated operating voltage, since it cannot be effective enough to maintain the depolarization between the electrode and the electrolyte, it will cause the polarization of the electrolytic capacitor to reduce the ripple current and increase Large equivalent series resistance, thereby premature aging. But the premise of this statement is 'far below the rated working voltage.' Based on some long-term practical experience, it is more reasonable and reliable to select about 2/3 of the nominal value of the rated working voltage as the normal working voltage. In the amateur case, the leakage current of the electrolytic capacitor can be roughly estimated. Charge the electrolytic capacitor of the same capacity according to the rated withstand voltage, and then check the voltage drop across the capacitor after a period of time. The lower the voltage drop, the smaller the leakage current. 5. Ripple current Ripple current is a very important parameter for the filter circuit of stone machine. Ripple current The higher the ripple current, the better. Its level is related to the operating frequency. The higher the frequency, the greater the ripple current, and the lower the frequency, the smaller the ripple current. The traditional belief is that we need to have a high ripple current at low frequencies in order to obtain good high-current discharge characteristics, make the low frequencies more robust, full and flexible, and good control and drive characteristics; in fact, high at high frequencies The ripple current is also great for the positive tone of the sound, which can make the high frequency have a better extension and reduce the roughness. 6.The problem of capacity error is not an important parameter of the capacitor, but I still want to tell you, I hope it will be useful to everyone, the capacity error of the capacitor, there are: ±1%, ±2%, ±3%, ±5%, ±10% , ±20%, etc., generally -50% to +100%. But a friend of mine who specializes in capacitors said: Domestic companies basically cannot produce capacitors with a ±1% error, and capacitors with small error requirements must be used immediately after production, otherwise the error of the capacitor will become larger.
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