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Understand the classification of commonly used power semiconductors in one article

by:Shenmao     2021-07-09
The core of power electronic technology is the conversion and control of electric energy. The common ones are DC to AC (inversion), AC to DC (rectification), frequency conversion, and equalization. Expanded in the project, it has become a variety of applications, and the application fields are very wide, and the little friends who learn electricity are very clear. However, the ever-changing is inseparable from its core-power electronic devices 01 classification The classification and use of power electronic devices: [Supplement] The development of semiconductor materials: the first generation: Si, Ge and other element semiconductor materials to promote the development of computer and IT technology , Is also the basic material of current power semiconductor devices; the second generation: GaAs, InP and other compound semiconductor materials, mainly used in microwave devices, radio frequency and other optoelectronics; the third generation: SiC, GaN and other wide band gap materials, in the future in power electronics , Radio frequency communication and other fields have very promising applications. 02 Application of power electronic devices: Uncontrolled devices: Typical devices are power diodes, mainly used in low-frequency rectifier circuits; Semi-controlled devices: Typical devices are thyristors, also known as thyristors, which are widely used Used in circuits such as controllable rectification, AC voltage regulation, contactless electronic switches, inverters, and frequency conversion. The application scenarios are mostly low-frequency; Full control devices: the most widely used applications, typically GTO, GTR, IGBT, MOSFET, and a wide range Used in various fields such as industry, automobiles, rail traction, home appliances, etc. GTO: gate turn-off thyristor GTR: power transistor IGBT: insulated gate bipolar transistor MOSFET: metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor automotive field and most industrial fields at present The most commonly used full-control devices, the basic application scenarios of full-control devices can be summarized with the following schematic diagram. 03IGBTIGBT is a good thing! : Here is the origin! Among the several full-control devices introduced above, GTO is a derivative device of thyristor, which is mainly used in high-power applications above the megawatt level. We will seldom involve them, and discuss the other ones first. GTR (Power Transistor): The circuit symbol is the same as that of ordinary triodes. It is a current-controlled power device. Since the 1980s, it has gradually replaced GTO in the small and medium power range. GTR students have distinctive characteristics. High voltage resistance, high current, and saturation voltage reduction are its main advantages; but the disadvantages are also obvious. The driving current is large, the surge current resistance is poor, and it is easily damaged by secondary breakdown, and the driving current is direct. Decided that it is not suitable for applications in the high frequency field. MOSFET (Metal Oxide Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor): As the name implies, electric field control is the most obvious difference between it and GTR. The characteristics are large input impedance, low driving power, fast switching speed, and high operating frequency. Does it perfectly compensate for the defects of GTR? ? Can MOS completely replace GTR? The answer is no. The typical parameter of MOSFET is the on-resistance. It is intuitively understood that the larger the withstand voltage, the thicker the chip, the larger the on-resistance, and the lower the current capability. Therefore, it is a MOS classmate who cannot take both high voltage and high current into account. Shortcomings, but don’t forget, this is the strength of GTR! Thus, the mixed-race IGBT was born. Looking at his simplified equivalent circuit diagram, do you understand what? Then the definition comes. IGBT is a Darlington structure with bipolar transistors as the dominant element and MOSFET as the driving element. Isn't it ingenious? Looking at his name 'Insulated Gate Field Effect TransistorThe required driving power is small, the driving circuit is simple, the input impedance is large, and the thermal stability is good; the application field is expanding rapidly, gradually replacing the market of GTR and MOSFET;
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