In recent years, it is required to meet the following requirements in hybrid and electric vehicle applications: ① to achieve high output and high efficiency of the motor drive system, ② to achieve low energy consumption (or low fuel consumption) miniaturization and other conditions. In the inverter of the drive system, a smoothing capacitor
for smoothing the DC voltage is required. For this reason, large-capacity and inexpensive aluminum electrolytic capacitors
are conventionally used. However, with the advancement of technological innovation and thinning of dielectric films for capacitors, it is now required to re-evaluate the specifications of film capacitors with excellent electrical characteristics such as high withstand voltage, low loss, high ripple current, and long life. With the popularization and widespread use of hybrid and electric vehicles in the future, system cost reduction and miniaturization are indispensable. Therefore, film capacitors are also required to further improve the performance of miniaturization, support for high ripple current, and high temperature. Therefore, development is required. With the ability to achieve miniaturization through the thinning of the dielectric film, high withstand voltage and long life through the development of vapor deposition technology, support for high ripple currents through the reduction of ESR, and enhance reliability through the development of component materials, and enhance the heat dissipation through optimized structural design. Film capacitors. Features of film capacitors for hybrid vehicles Film capacitors use a few µm thick plastic film as the electrolyte of the film capacitors. In hybrid vehicles and electric vehicles, the polypropylene film is mainly used for vapor deposition of metal as internal electrodes. Metal (metallized film), these have excellent electrical characteristics, safety, and high reliability as shown below. ① Capacitance characteristics that are stable against temperature changes ② Excellent voltage resistance, most suitable for high voltage applications ③ Low loss, so the product's own heat is suppressed, energy saving ④ Sharp high frequency characteristics, excellent filtering effect ⑤ Ripple current High endurance, high current density per unit volume ⑥ With self-recovery function (self-repairing), excellent safety ⑦ No maintenance required for more than 10 years in high temperature environment In view of the excellent electrical characteristics of conventional film capacitors using polypropylene film, it is difficult to achieve small size It is not easy to obtain a capacitance per unit volume, so it is only used for some purposes. Nowadays, with the thinning of dielectric films and the improvement of evaporation technology, the demand for thin film capacitors in hybrid vehicles and electric vehicles has risen sharply. The latest technology trend of film capacitors The film thickness of the dielectric film determines the volume of the film capacitor, so if the film thickness is reduced by 1/2, the volume will become 1/4 with the same capacity. The thinning of polypropylene film has reached 2.5 µm, and thinner films are still being developed. The vapor deposition technology (evaporation pattern) requires an increase in the withstand voltage as the film thickness becomes thinner. Therefore, a pattern is formed on the vapor-deposited metal, and the function of the fuse (safety mechanism) is maintained on the pattern of the small section (zone). According to the required performance, the pattern of the vapor deposition pattern is developed, and it has a high withstand voltage and a long life. The vapor deposition pattern supports high ripple current polypropylene film is also a low-loss material. Since the fuse formed in the vapor deposition pattern itself becomes a resistor, it will increase the energization and heat generation of the high ripple current. Therefore, not only has the pattern of the vapor deposition pattern developed for the coexistence of high withstand voltage and high ripple current, but also the film thickness of the vapor deposited metal is controlled to support high ripple current.
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