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Brief Introduction of Military Polymer Solid Electrolyte Tantalum Capacitors

by:Shenmao     2021-06-17
As the most used component in aerospace engineering, capacitors play a seemingly insignificant, but actually vital role. As one of the most high-end capacitors at present, tantalum capacitors are characterized by long life, small size, large capacity, and high reliability. Tantalum capacitors are used in highly reliable design circuits. Due to the low reliability of aluminum electrolytic capacitors, in 1956, American Bell Laboratories developed manganese dioxide solid electrolyte tantalum capacitors. With the advancement of technology, low-impedance and large-scale applications of high-frequency circuits, manganese tantalum dioxide is easy to burn, and the characteristics of weak high-frequency performance gradually affect the performance and safety of the whole machine. Therefore, in 1997, KEMET Corporation of the United States developed a polymer solid electrolyte tantalum capacitor with higher reliability and better performance. At present, two series of chip and metal case encapsulated polymer tantalum capacitors have been formed. This capacitor contains all the advantages of manganese dioxide tantalum capacitors, and has better electrical performance. At the same time, it has the advantages of small ESR and high application frequency of ceramic capacitors. It is widely used in military electronic equipment and opened a new era of capacitors. Polymer tantalum capacitors are also known as conductive polymer tantalum capacitors or polymer tantalum capacitors, so named because their cathodes are made of conductive polymer materials. Polymer materials are usually considered as insulators (such as plastics), but in the 1970s, chemist AG Ma e Diarmid and physicist AJ He eger and Japanese chemist H. Sh irakawa from the University of Pennsylvania in the United States synthesized them into conductors and were widely used. And it has brought revolutionary changes to many industries. Because of their pioneering contributions in the field of conductive polymers, the above three scientists jointly won the 2000 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. KEMET Corporation of the United States is a leader in the tantalum capacitor industry. Due to military needs, it was the first to introduce conductive polymer materials for tantalum capacitors and successfully developed it in 1997. The emergence of polymer tantalum capacitors quickly triggered a huge change in the capacitor industry. At present, it has formed a trend to replace traditional capacitors. Compared with traditional manganese dioxide tantalum capacitors, it has the following advantages: 01/benign failure mode safety high polymer tantalum capacitors are failing When the negative electrode polymer undergoes an oxygen absorption reaction, the anode tantalum powder is isolated from the contact with oxygen. Even if the product fails, there will be no violent combustion, and the product is safer. 02/Ultra-low ESR At present, as the volume of the switching power supply continues to shrink, the energy conversion efficiency continues to increase, and the operating frequency continues to increase (from 20KHz to 500KHz, even reaching megahertz). The increase in frequency leads to an increase in the high-frequency noise of the output part. In order to effectively filter, it is necessary to use ultra-low high-frequency impedance or ultra-low equivalent series resistance (ESR) capacitors. The impedance and ESR of polymer chip tantalum capacitors do not change much in the high frequency range. The low rate of change in this high frequency range largely determines the use occasions of the capacitor. 03/High frequency capacity retention The increase in conductivity of the conductive polymer electrolyte greatly improves the high frequency performance of the capacitor. The polymer tantalum capacitor has a small capacitance drop before the frequency of 100kHz. This feature greatly improves the filtering performance of the capacitor in the DC-DC conversion circuit and the circuit in this frequency range. The filtering characteristic of this kind of circuit depends on the capacity and ESR, if the filtering effect is to exceed expectations, only need to consider how to improve the ESR. Ordinary manganese tantalum dioxide capacitors may lose up to 50% of their capacity at 100kHz, while polymer tantalum capacitors usually retain more than 90% of their capacity at 100kHz. 04/Resistant to large ripple and surge current impact. The high frequency area of u200bu200bpolymer tantalum capacitors has higher capacitance and smaller loss tangent, which greatly reduces noise at high frequencies and allows larger ripple currents. 05/Excellent self-repair ability. When the capacitor is damaged, the current will concentrate on the defect and generate local high temperature. This concentrated heat will vaporize the polymer at the defect, thereby breaking the connection with the defect and repairing the defect. In another way, when the current is concentrated at the defect, the polymer is heated, and the heated polymer is strongly reducing, which will absorb any oxygen present nearby and increase its own resistivity at the same time. This will also 'plug' the defect and play the role of repairing the capacitor. 06/Higher reliability and lower voltage derating. The failures of tantalum capacitors are basically 'thermal' failures. The most significant feature of polymer tantalum capacitors is low ESR and low heat generation, so the reliability is high. In the practical application of capacitors, MnO2 tantalum capacitors generally need to be derated by 50%, while polymer tantalum capacitors only need to be derated by 10 to 20% (rated voltage greater than 10V is derated by 20%, and others are derated by 10%). It is foreseeable that in the near future, polymer tantalum capacitors will completely replace MnO2 tantalum capacitors and become the mainstream of application in my country's tantalum capacitor industry.
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