China's semiconductor dilemma! This is all! |Focus on mid-to-high-end brand capacitor manufacturers
In the field of semiconductors, what China needs to challenge is the industrial system accumulated in the West for hundreds of years. China Semiconductor has been creeping forward under the enemy's artillery fire. Today, the enemy's artillery fire is becoming more and more fierce. In the chase and interception, who makes me 'core' pain? ①The amazing dominance of the United States In 1957, eight disciples of Shockley, the father of transistors, founded Fairchild Semiconductor in Silicon Valley and developed the first integrated circuit in human history. Silicon Valley became the birthplace of semiconductor technology in the world. Has continued to this day. During the period, despite several industrial transfers, semiconductor manufacturing was transferred to Japan in the 1970s and 1980s; after the 1990s, it was transferred to South Korea and Taiwan. But the United States still retains its dominance in many core areas. Taking production equipment as an example, the world’s top three giants Applied Materials, Panlin and ASML, the United States alone has the top two seats, and applied materials are leading in almost all fields except lithography machines, including etching and thin film deposition. Even more frightening is that the world's three major EDA software (for chip design) giants Keng Teng, Mentor and Synopsys are all American companies, and almost all chip design and manufacturing companies in the world cannot do without them. In terms of high-end chips, many shortcomings exposed by the ZTE incident, including ADC/DAC (digital-to-analog conversion), FPGA, high-speed optical communication interface and other chips, are currently dependent on American manufacturers, including Texas Instruments, Xilinx, and Analog Devices. Wait. The amazing dominance of the United States is also reflected in the ecosystem. At present, the three mainstream chip architectures are X86, MIPS and ARM, and the first two are of American origin. Among them, Intel's X86 architecture has formed an alliance with Microsoft's Windows system to dominate the desktop market. Although the ARM architecture is of British origin, it is inseparable from the support of Android and iOS systems, which together account for more than 95% of the global mobile phone market. Moreover, ARM was actually born from a failed product of Apple. Today, among the top 20 semiconductor companies in the world, the United States still occupies eight seats and is in absolute dominance, and is basically a key company that is stuck in the core. ②The entire industry chain of China VS Semiconductor is a huge industry. In terms of broad categories, it includes integrated circuits (IC), optoelectronics, separators and sensors, among which the scale of IC accounts for more than 80%. The so-called chip is a silicon wafer containing integrated circuits, which is divided into dozens of major categories and thousands of small categories. Manufacturing a small chip involves more than 50 disciplines and thousands of processes, including three major links: design, manufacturing, and packaging. In this industry chain, the gap between domestic enterprises is all-round. Looking at the design first, Huawei HiSilicon and Ziguang Zhanrui ranked among the top two in China. At present, the two companies are world-leading in many fields, but a huge problem is that the core of their architecture authorization is mastered by outsiders. At present, only Godson of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and Shenwei of the General Staff Department have independent architectures. The former is used for Beidou navigation and the latter is used for Shenwei supercomputers. The civilian field is basically blank. Equipment and materials are another big shortcoming. The three major equipment for manufacturing chips: lithography machine, etching machine and film deposition, only China Micro Semiconductor's dielectric etching machine can keep up with the industry rhythm, and its 7-nanometer equipment has been shortlisted by TSMC. In addition, North Huachuang has achieved good results in oxidation furnaces and thin film deposition equipment, but it is basically at the 28-nanometer level. Other equipment, such as ion implanters, polishing machines, and cleaning machines, are similar. The biggest gap is the lithography machine. The lithography machine is used to expose the designed circuit diagram on the silicon wafer, and the etching machine is responsible for micro-engraving and carving out grooves or contact holes. At present, ASML's most advanced EUV lithography machine is about to be put into the 7-nanometer process of Samsung and TSMC, while the domestic Shanghai Microelectronics lithography machine is still at the level of 90-nanometer mass production. In terms of materials, Japan is the world leader. Among the 19 main materials used to make chips, 14 of Japan ranks first in the world, with a total share of more than 60%. Nearly 70% of the world's silicon wafers are produced in Japan, which is the foundation of chip manufacturing. On the other hand, in China, silicon wafers are almost blank, the 8-inch domestic production rate is less than 10%, and the 12-inch depends on imports. The hope of breaking the monopoly is still in Xinsheng Semiconductor, founded by Zhang Rujing, which will be mass-produced this year. He is also the founder of SMIC. In addition to silicon wafers, domestic companies have also made breakthroughs in materials such as sputtering targets and polishing fluids, and achieved localization. The former is used to make metal wires, and the latter is used for chip grinding and polishing. The above are all single-point breakthroughs, which are far from the rise of the entire industry.