Shenmao Capacitors specialized in aluminum electrolytic capacitors from 1970

Classic capacitor knowledge (very complete)

by:Shenmao     2021-04-22
The classification of capacitors 1. The so-called capacitors are electronic components that hold and release charges. The basic working principle of the capacitor is charging and discharging, passing AC, and blocking DC. Of course, there are rectification, oscillation, and other functions. In addition, the structure of the capacitor is very simple, mainly composed of two positive and negative electrodes and an insulating medium sandwiched between, so the type of capacitor is mainly determined by the electrode and the insulating medium. There are many uses of capacitors, mainly as follows: 1. DC blocking: The function is to prevent DC from passing and allow AC to pass. 2. Bypass (decoupling): Provide a low-impedance path for some parallel components in the AC circuit. 3. Coupling: As a connection between two circuits, allowing AC signals to pass through and be transmitted to the next level circuit 4. Filtering: This is very important for DIY. The capacitors on the graphics card basically do this. 5. Temperature compensation: In view of the impact of other components' insufficient adaptability to temperature, compensation is made to improve the stability of the circuit. 6. Timing: The capacitor is used in conjunction with the resistor to determine the time constant of the circuit. 7. Tuning: System tuning for frequency-related circuits, such as mobile phones, radios, and televisions. 8. Rectification: Turning on or off the semi-closed conductor switch assembly at a predetermined time. 9. Energy storage: store electrical energy and release it when necessary. Such as camera flash, heating equipment and so on. 2. Capacitance unit The basic unit of capacitance is: F (farad), in addition to μF (microfarad), pF (picofarad), and another unit that is less used, that is: nF (), because The capacitance of the capacitor F is very large, so we generally see the unit of μF, nF, and pF, not the unit of F. The specific conversion between them is as follows: 1Fu003d1000000μF 1μFu003d1000nFu003d1000000pF 3. Calculation method of capacitance 1. Capacitance calculation formula 2. Capacitor impedance calculation Alternating current can pass through the capacitor, but the capacitor still hinders the alternating current. The obstructive effect of capacitors on alternating current is called capacitive reactance. The capacitance is large, and the alternating current is easy to pass through the capacitor, indicating that the capacitance is large, and the obstruction effect of the capacitor is small; the frequency of the alternating current is high, and the alternating current is also easy to pass through the capacitor, indicating that the frequency is high and the obstruction effect of the capacitor is also small. Experiments have shown that capacitive reactance is inversely proportional to capacitance and also inversely proportional to frequency. If capacitive reactance is represented by X C, capacitance is represented by C, and frequency is represented by f, then the unit of capacitive reactance is ohms. Know the frequency f and capacitance C of alternating current. Fourth, the model naming of capacitors: 1) The model naming of capacitors in various countries is very different. The naming of domestic capacitors consists of four parts: Part 1: Use letters to indicate the name, and the capacitor is C. Part 2: Use letters to indicate materials. Part 3: Use numbers to indicate classification. Part 4: Use numbers to indicate serial numbers. 2) Capacitor marking method: (1) Direct marking method: Use letters and numbers to mark the model and specifications directly on the shell. (2) Text symbol method: Use a regular combination of numbers and text symbols to express capacity. The text symbol indicates the unit of its capacitance: P, N, u, m, F, etc. It is the same as the representation method of resistance. The nominal allowable deviation is also the same as the representation method of resistance. For capacitors less than 10pF, the allowable deviation is replaced by letters: B——±0.1pF, C——±0.25pF, D——±0.5pF, F——±1pF. (3) Color code method: the same as the representation method of resistance, and the unit is generally pF.
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