Integrated circuit failure analysis steps: 1. Inspection before opening, visual inspection, X-ray inspection, scanning acoustic microscope inspection. 2. Open the package for microscope inspection. 3. Electrical performance analysis, defect location technology, circuit analysis and micro-probe analysis. 4. Physical analysis, layer peeling, focused ion beam (FIB), scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (SEM), VC positioning technology. 1. Loss-free efficiency analysis technology 1. Visual inspection, mainly relying on the naked eye to check whether there are obvious defects, such as whether the plastic resin package is cracked, and whether the chip pins are in good contact. X-ray inspection is to use X-ray fluoroscopy to irradiate the tested sample with X-rays. The defective part of the sample will absorb X-rays, which will cause abnormal X-ray imaging. X-ray mainly checks whether the leads of integrated circuits are damaged. Select the appropriate wavelength according to the size and structure of the electronic components, so that the appropriate resolution can be obtained. 2. Scanning acoustic microscope uses ultrasonic to detect internal defects of the sample, and find out the location of the internal defects of the sample based on the reflection of ultrasonic waves. This method mainly uses moisture or high temperature damage to the device when the main integrated circuit is plasticized. Cracks or delamination. 2. Loss-effective analysis technology 1. Open the package, there are generally three methods. In the full stripping method, the integrated circuit is completely damaged, leaving only the complete internal circuit of the chip. The defect is due to the destruction of the internal circuits and leads, and the electrodynamic analysis can no longer be carried out. Method two is the total removal method, and the third polishing machine grinds the resin on the surface of the integrated circuit until the chip. The advantage is that the internal circuit and leads will not be damaged after unsealing, and the electrodynamic analysis can be carried out after unsealing. The third method is to use sulfuric acid spray to achieve the effect of partial removal by the automatic method. 2. Defect location, location of specific failure location is an important and difficult item in integrated circuit failure analysis, failure mechanism and defect characteristics can be discovered only after defect location. a. Emission microscope technology, with non-destructive, fast and accurate characteristics. It uses a photoelectron detector to detect the area where the photoelectric effect is generated. Because of the defects in the silicon wafer, there will usually be a growing number of electrons-holes recombination and strong photon radiation. b. OBIRCH technology is a testing technology that uses a laser beam to induce changes in the resistivity of materials. Scanning different materials with a laser beam can get the resistivity changes of different materials. This method can test those hidden reliability hazards inside the metal wiring. C. Liquid crystal hot spot detection is generally composed of a polarization microscope, a temperature-adjustable sample stage, and a control circuit. When changing from crystal anisotropy to crystal isotropy, the critical temperature energy required is small to improve sensitivity. At the same time, the phase transition temperature should be controlled at 30-90 degrees, and the polarization microscope should be used in orthogonally polarized light, which can improve the sensitivity of the liquid crystal phase transition reaction. 3. Electrical performance analysis (probe station) According to the layout and principle diagram of the decorated circuit, combined with the failure of the chip, gradually narrow the circuit range of the defective part, and finally use the micro-probe microscopy technology to locate the defective device. Micro-probe detection technology, the function of the micro-probe is to measure the electrical parameter values u200bu200bof internal devices, such as operating point voltage, current, and volt-ampere characteristic curve. Microprobe technology is generally used in conjunction with circuit analysis, and the two can quickly search for failed devices. 3. Physical analysis 1. Focused ion beam (FIB) consists of ion source, ion beam focusing and sample stage. An electron microscope is used to focus ions into a microwave-sized cutter. The fine and precise cutting of the focused ion beam, combined with the high-resolution imaging of the scanning electron microscope, can well solve the profile problem. The positioning accuracy can reach below 0.1um. At the same time, the stress of the integrated circuit during the profile process is very small, and the integration is completely preserved Circuit. 2. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) uses a focused ion beam to bombard the surface of the device to generate many electronic signals. These electronic signals are amplified as modulated signals and connected to the display to obtain the surface image of the device. Transmission electron microscope (TEM), resolution can reach 0.1nm, transmission electron microscope can clearly analyze device defects, and better meet the analytical requirements of inspection tools for integrated electrical failure analysis. 3. VC positioning technology is based on the primary electron beam or ion beam of SEM or FIB to scan the surface of the sample. The non-existent parts on the surface of the silicon wafer have different electric potentials, showing different bright contrasts. Find the points that lead to always bright to locate the failure points.