The so-called capacitor
is an electronic component that accommodates and releases charge. The basic working principle of a capacitor is charging and discharging, and of course it also has rectification, oscillation and other functions. In addition, the structure of the capacitor is very simple, mainly composed of two positive and negative electrodes and an insulating medium sandwiched in between, so the type of capacitor is mainly determined by the electrode and the insulating medium. 1. Filter capacitor The filter capacitor is connected between the positive and negative poles of the DC voltage to filter out unwanted AC components in the DC power supply and smooth the DC power. Large-capacity electrolytic capacitor
s are usually used, or they can be connected in parallel in the circuit at the same time. A type of small-capacity capacitor to filter out high-frequency alternating current. 2. Decoupling capacitor The decoupling capacitor is connected in parallel between the positive and negative poles of the power supply of the amplifying circuit to prevent the parasitic oscillation caused by the positive feedback formed by the internal resistance of the power supply. 3. In the circuit of AC and DC signals, the bypass capacitor is connected in parallel to the two ends of the resistor or connected to the common potential from a certain point of the circuit to set a path for the AC signal or pulse signal to avoid the passage of the AC signal component. The resistance produces voltage drop attenuation. 4. In the AC signal processing circuit, the coupling capacitor is used to connect the signal source and the signal processing circuit or as an inter-stage connection between the two amplifiers. It is used to cut off the DC, let the AC signal or pulse signal pass, and make the DC work of the front and rear amplifier circuits. The points do not affect each other. 5. The tuning capacitor is connected to both ends of the oscillating coil of the resonant circuit and plays a role in selecting the oscillating frequency. 6. The pad capacitor is an auxiliary capacitor connected in series with the main capacitor of the resonant circuit. Adjusting it can reduce the frequency range of the oscillation signal and significantly increase the oscillation frequency of the low-frequency end. 7. Compensation capacitor Compensation capacitor is an auxiliary capacitor in parallel with the main capacitor of the resonant circuit. Adjusting this capacitor can expand the frequency range of the oscillation signal. 8. The neutralization capacitor is connected in parallel between the base and emitter of the triode amplifier to form a negative feedback network to suppress the self-excited oscillation caused by the capacitance between the transistors. 9. The frequency stabilizing capacitor plays a role in stabilizing the oscillation frequency in the oscillation circuit. 10. The timing capacitor is connected in series with the resistor R in the RC time constant circuit to jointly determine the capacitance of the charge and discharge time. 11. The acceleration capacitor is connected to the oscillator feedback circuit to accelerate the positive feedback process and increase the amplitude of the oscillating signal. 12. Shorten the capacitor. In the UHF tuner circuit, a capacitor connected in series in order to shorten the length of the oscillating inductor. 13. Crabow capacitor is in the capacitor three-point oscillation circuit, and the capacitor in series with the inductance oscillating coil plays a role in eliminating the effect of transistor junction capacitance on frequency stability. 14. In the capacitor three-point oscillation circuit, the tin capacitor is connected in parallel with the two ends of the inductance oscillation coil to eliminate the effect of the junction capacitance of the transistor and make the oscillator easy to vibrate at the high frequency end. 15. The amplitude stabilizing capacitor is used in the frequency discriminator to stabilize the amplitude of the output signal. 16. In order to avoid the attenuation and loss of the frequency division amount caused by the audio modulation signal during the processing of the audio modulation signal, the pre-emphasis capacitor is set to increase the network capacitor by the RC high-frequency component. 17. De-emphasis capacitor In order to restore the original audio signal, it is required to attenuate the high-frequency components and noise that are boosted by pre-emphasis in the audio signal together, and set the RC capacitor in the network. 18. Phase-shifting capacitor The phase-shifting capacitor is a capacitor used to change the phase of an AC signal. 19. The feedback capacitor is connected across the amplifier's input and output terminals to make the output signal return to the input terminal. 20. The step-down and current-limiting capacitors are connected in series in the AC loop, and the capacitive reactance characteristics of the capacitor to the AC are used to limit the AC current to form a voltage divider circuit. 21. The flyback capacitor is used in the horizontal scan output circuit and is connected between the collector and the emitter of the horizontal output tube to generate high-voltage horizontal scan sawtooth reverse pulse. Its withstand voltage is generally above 1500 volts. 22. The S correction capacitor is connected in series in the deflection coil loop to correct the extended linear distortion at the edge of the picture tube. 23. The bootstrap boost capacitor uses the charging and discharging energy storage characteristics of the capacitor to increase the potential of a certain point of the circuit, so that the potential of this point reaches twice the value of the voltage at the power supply terminal. 24. The anti-bright spot capacitor is set in the video amplifier circuit to eliminate the residual bright spot on the kinescope when it is turned off. 25. The soft-start capacitor is generally connected to the base of the switch of the switching power supply to prevent excessive surge current or excessive peak voltage from being applied to the base of the switch when the power is turned on, causing damage to the switch. 26. The starting capacitor is connected in series on the secondary winding of the single-phase motor to provide the motor with a starting phase-shifted AC voltage, which will be disconnected from the secondary winding after the motor is running normally. 27. The running capacitor is connected in series with the secondary winding of the single-phase motor to provide phase-shifting AC current for the secondary winding of the motor. When the motor is running normally, it is connected in series with the secondary winding. There are three common misunderstandings about capacitors. The larger the capacitor capacity, the better, the capacitor of the same capacity; the more small capacitors in parallel, the better, and the lower the ESR; the better the effect. Capacitors have many functions, and they need to be selected according to actual conditions in practical applications.
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