The ideal capacitor
should have no loss, it is how much power is charged and how much power is discharged! However, the actual capacitor is energy-consuming and heat-generating, and it is also lossy. The main capacitor losses include: dielectric loss and metal loss. Dielectric loss is the energy consumed by the collision between molecules in the polarization process of the medium under an electric field, resulting in loss. In practice, the equivalent resistance is the main reason for the loss of the capacitor, and the dielectric loss is usually ignored! The loss tangent value (loss factor) is usually used to express the loss of a capacitor. The ratio of active loss to reactive loss is the loss factor tgδ, or the ratio of the series equivalent resistance ESR to the capacitive reactance 1/WC. Electrolytic capacitors are the same as other capacitors! But the loss tangent is usually in the order of a few percent, and the gold film capacitor is in the order of a few ten thousandths!
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