Shenmao Capacitors specialized in aluminum electrolytic capacitors from 1970

What should I do if the capacitor is blown up? Why did the capacitor explode?

by:Shenmao     2021-05-04
Reasons for the explosion of electrolytic capacitors: Electrolytic capacitors are capacitors in which the oxide layer formed on the electrode by the electrolyte acts as an insulating layer. It usually has a large capacity. The high capacity of electrolytic capacitors also has disadvantages such as: large equivalent series inductance Due to the large error of resistance and capacitance, short life span, etc., electrolytic capacitors are also divided into polar electrolytic capacitors and non-polar electrolytic capacitors. Under the same capacity and withstand voltage level, non-polar electrolytic capacitors are about twice as large as those with polarity. Reasons for the explosion of non-polar electrolytic capacitors: During the voltage increase of non-polar capacitors, when the applied voltage exceeds the withstand voltage value, and the internal temperature continues to increase, as the current rises sharply, the power supply internal group causes the voltage to drop. Finally, when the current exceeds the withstand voltage, with a loud noise, the capacitor explodes. Due to the large internal volume of the non-polar electrolytic capacitor and the amount of electrolyte, the pressure generated after the overcurrent is huge. As a result, the pressure relief groove at the top of the housing did not break, and the sealing rubber at the bottom of the capacitor was exploded. Reasons for explosion of polar electrolytic capacitors: Electrolytic capacitors with polarity apply voltage. When the voltage exceeds the withstand voltage of the capacitor, the leakage current will also rise sharply, causing the capacitor to overheat and explode, but after the overvoltage, the internal air pressure process is released through the top pressure relief groove. Therefore, the capacitor explosion process is avoided. Through the experimental process of the previous two electrolytic capacitors, we can also see the withstand voltage limitation of such ordinary electrolytic capacitors. In order to avoid capacitor breakdown by high voltage, when using electrolytic capacitors, it is necessary to leave a sufficient safety margin based on actual voltage fluctuations. So what should I do if the capacitor explodes and how can I avoid it? Under appropriate circumstances, larger capacitance and larger capacitance withstand voltage can be obtained through parallel and series connection, respectively. The voltage applied to the capacitor is an AC voltage, such as the coupling capacitor of the speaker, the AC phase compensation, the motor phase shift capacitor, etc., which require the use of non-polar electrolytic capacitors. It is also possible to use traditional polarized capacitors through back-to-back series connection, that is, connecting two capacitors in series with opposite polarities to obtain the effect of non-polar capacitors. The following is an example of the test results: measure the current flowing through the capacitor by connecting a resistor in series, within the withstand voltage range of the electrolytic capacitor (1000uF, 16V), gradually increase the applied voltage from 0V, and measure the corresponding leakage current and voltage The relationship between. The following figure shows the relationship between the leakage current and voltage of a polarized aluminum electrolytic capacitor. This is a non-linear relationship. The leakage current is below 0.5mA. Use the same current to measure the relationship between the applied direction voltage and the electrolytic capacitor leakage current. As can be seen from the figure below, when the applied reverse voltage exceeds 4V, the leakage current begins to increase rapidly. Looking at the slope of the following curve, the reverse electrolytic capacitor is equivalent to a resistor with a resistance of 1 ohm. Connect two identical electrolytic capacitors (1000uF, 16V) back-to-back in series to form a non-polar equivalent electrolytic capacitor. Measure the relationship curve between their voltage and leakage current. The figure below shows the relationship between capacitor voltage and leakage current. It will be seen that after the applied voltage exceeds 4V, the leakage current will increase, and the current amplitude will be less than 1.5mA.
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