Shenmao Capacitors specialized in aluminum electrolytic capacitors from 1970

Working principle of car audio capacitors|Focus on mid-to-high-end brand capacitor manufacturers

by:Shenmao     2021-05-27
The car audio power ceiling works by storing large amounts of electricity, which can then be delivered to power-hungry components when needed. They are superior to typical lead-acid batteries because they have very low internal resistance. This allows them to provide large amounts of electricity (current) very quickly. It is much faster than the car's charging system and can provide the same amount of current. Car audio power amplifiers may have very large current requirements. It depends on the music played through the amplifier. Generally, these currents are only needed in short pulses during transient peaks (bass drum notes, etc.). If the amplifier tries to draw this current directly from the electrical system, it may cause a voltage drop, called droop. This droop is equivalent to the voltage drop in the system, and the size of the drop depends on the resistance from the power supply (battery) to the amplifier. For example, suppose you have a 20-foot 8-gauge wire, and your amplifier suddenly needs 100 amps to reach bass. Use Ohm's law, where the voltage or voltage drop in this case is equal to the current (100 amperes) times the resistance. Using the power cord resistance meter, we can see that the resistance of line 8 is 0.000739 ohms per foot. After passing the twenty-foot-long wire many times, we must get a total resistance of 0.01478 ohms. This does not look like the voltage of the vehicle's electrical system. This is the math using Ohm’s law: Eu003dIxR or voltageu003dcurrent multiplied by resistance Eu003d100 amps x.01478 ohms Eu003d1.478 volts. Therefore, 100 amps running through a 20-foot-long 8-gauge wire causes the amplifier’s voltage to drop by approximately 1.5 volts. If your vehicle system is charging at 14 volts (the average range is 13.5-14.5), the voltage of the amplifier will be 12.5 volts. This also explains why it is necessary to know the current consumption and line length in the system. If your amplifier can continuously draw large currents, you need to use a large power cord to keep this voltage drop to a minimum. So what does this have to do with car audio capacitors? Two things. First, the power capacitor is placed closer to the amplifier than the battery, so that the voltage drop will be much smaller under all other conditions. But secondly, your charging system may not be designed to provide large current consumption at all times. Therefore, your amplifier will have to get power from the vehicle battery and alternator. And the battery has its own internal resistance, which is much higher than the internal resistance of car audio power capacitors, as mentioned earlier. Due to this additional internal resistance, it is not an effective means to provide a large amount of instantaneous current. The capacitor is like a small water tank with a big hose, and the battery is like a big water tank with a small hose. Therefore, if a car audio capacitor is installed, you can provide a large current burst during the music transient, and then the capacitor can be charged during the off-peak part of the music. See the figure below, which illustrates the capacitor as a water tank. Water represents the electrical energy stored in the capacitor. The fuel tank has a slowly moving input line from the battery. The water tank also has a large output line, which is connected to the amplifier. This large output line allows the fuel tank to be emptied quickly. But if the amplifier tries to pull too much, then the current will disappear and you will have to wait until the slow input line of the battery refills it. To avoid this, you need to make sure that your current is sufficient to amplify your amplifier. This capacity or 'tank size' is measured in farads.
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