Common faults of electrolytic capacitor
s include capacity reduction, capacity disappearance, short-circuit breakdown and leakage, etc. The capacity change is caused by the gradual drying of the electrolyte inside the electrolytic capacitor during use or heating (generally speaking, the capacity decreases with high temperature) , And breakdown and leakage are generally caused by excessively high applied voltage or poor quality of the capacitor itself. Note 1. Since the electrolytic capacitor has positive and negative polarity, it cannot be connected upside down when used in the circuit: In the power supply circuit, when the positive voltage is output, the positive electrode of the electrolytic capacitor is connected to the power output terminal, and the negative electrode is grounded. When outputting a negative voltage, the negative pole is connected to the output terminal, and the positive pole is grounded. 2. The voltage applied to both ends of the electrolytic capacitor should not exceed its allowable working voltage. When designing the actual circuit, a certain margin should be left according to the specific situation. When designing the filter capacitor of a regulated power supply, if the AC power supply voltage is 220V, the rectified voltage on the secondary side of the transformer can reach 22V. At this time, choosing an electrolytic capacitor with a withstand voltage of 25V can generally meet the requirements. However, if the AC power supply voltage fluctuates greatly and may rise above 250V, choose an electrolytic capacitor with a withstand voltage of 30V or more. 3. The electrolytic capacitor should not be close to high-power heating elements in the circuit to prevent the electrolyte in the electrolytic capacitor from drying up due to heat. 4. For the filtering of signals with positive and negative polarity, two electrolytic capacitors in series with the same polarity can be used as a non-polar capacitor.
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