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Are super capacitors really better than batteries?

by:Shenmao     2021-04-16
In recent years, supercapacitors have begun to enter people's electric vehicles because of the new energy future. However, what is a supercapacitor, and is it really better than a battery? Are supercapacitors really the future of energy storage? Before delving into whether supercapacitors can really change energy storage, we need to understand that batteries and capacitors are both a method of storing energy, but lithium-ion batteries rely on chemical reactions to store and release energy. It consists of an integer consisting of a positive electrode and a negative electrode. Both of them are submerged in liquid electrolyte and separated by microporous separators. Only ions are allowed to pass. When the battery is charged and discharged, ions flow back and forth between the cathode and anode. During this process, the battery is heating and expanding. The reaction will degrade the battery over time, thereby limiting the battery's service life. One of the advantages of battery technology is that it has a high specific energy and density, so it can store a large amount of energy for later use. But capacitors are different. They do not rely on chemical action to function. They store potential energy electrostatically. Capacitors use dielectrics or insulators. The collection of positive and negative charges are collected separately between the plates. On each plate, it is this separation that enables the device to store energy and release it quickly. It is basically absorbing static electricity. One of the benefits of this is the 3V capacitor. After 15 or 20 years of use, it is still a 3V capacitor, but the battery has lost power. Unlike the battery, the capacitor has a higher power throughput so it can be charged and discharged in a short time, but their ratio is very low. It is useful for very small power bursts, which is why supercapacitors are beginning to be advertised as replacing batteries. The concepts of batteries and capacitors and supercapacitors are not new. In fact, General Electric invented the first supercapacitor device in 1957, but there had not been any commercial application at that time. In 1966, Standard Petroleum discovered it by accident. Double-layer capacitors. In the late 1970s, Japan’s NEC company began to provide the first 'super capacitors' for computers. Products such as ECOND’s pscap (starters for diesel trains) began to be put on the market in the 1990s and promoted storage. The application range of energy and capacitors is like the latest development of graphene-based capacitors, which has once again promoted the growth of supercapacitors and applications. What is the difference between the working principle of supercapacitors and conventional ones? What makes supercapacitors better than ordinary capacitors, even batteries on metal plates The distance between ordinary capacitors is about 10-100 microns (1 micron is one thousandth of a millimeter). At that time, the distance in supercapacitors was reduced to one thousandth of a micron, and the smaller distance resulted in more Large electric field-more energy storage, needless to say that the plate of a carbon-coated supercapacitor can increase the usable surface area of u200bu200bstorage capacity by up to 100,000 times, which is much more energy than ordinary capacitors can use. Supercapacitors have been discovered to have the greatest potential for application in hybrid transportation (refer to Tesla) Toyota, Citroen, Mazda, etc. have all released vehicle models that use a combination of supercapacitors and traditional lithium-ion batteries, and Tesla invested in this acquisition The amount is as high as 200 million US dollars. The person in charge of Tesla said that his focus is not to expand the scope of use of supercapacitors, but only for the research and development of supercapacitor manufacturing technology for Tesla Motors. There is also an advantage to using supercapacitors in cars. The power is being generated. During use, each brake will help the super capacitor store energy, which is used to accelerate and save battery power. The violent action is faster than acceleration and deceleration. It uses the power throughput of the super capacitor in Switzerland. You can see an example of a super capacitor. Swiss buses will pass routes at multiple stations and set up charging stations. It only takes fifteen seconds to be fully charged. Frequent replenishment is used to make up for the lack of energy density and storage, and super capacitors It consumes a few minutes of current at a time, so this reduces the pressure on the grid. In the future, supercapacitors will enter the market for parts such as electric motorcycles, spacecraft and wave energy. Graphene is also the next generation of supercapacitors to provide a series of improvements, because it can Provide a larger surface area, thereby providing more energy storage capacity of the super capacitor. Graphene ultra-light has unique elasticity, and is very strong to absorb renewable energy. The key words of new energy are also the main development direction of the world in the future. However, the research and development of supercapacitors that can be combined with these new energy sources has been guided by a lot of energy. To research, develop and explore. For example, there are already researches on life products such as electric bicycles, laptop batteries, etc.
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